Wednesday, July 31, 2013

Breastfeeding Promotes Beneficial Gut Bacteria in Infants

After reading the article Gut Microbes for Life by Ed Young that discussed the relative long term stability of our gut flora I wondered if the way a mother chooses to feed her baby had any effect on the bacterial make-up of an infant’s gut and if that had any effect on long term health related to gastrointestinal diseases. All major medical associations recommend exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months followed by continued breastfeeding with the addition of age appropriate foods until at least 1 year of age. The health benefits of breastfeeding to both mom and baby have been researched extensively and are now accepted by much of the general population. Healthy People 2020 goals are to have 81.9% of moms initiate breastfeeding, 46.2% exclusively breastfeeding at 3 months, 60.6% breastfeeding at 6 months, 25.5% exclusive breastfeeding at 6 months, and 34.1% breastfeeding at 1 year.  Even with the research highlighting the benefits of breastfeeding many mothers choose to formula feed their infants. The CDC 2012 Breastfeeding Report card shows only 76.9% of mothers initiating breastfeeding, 36% exclusive at 3 months, 47.3% breastfeeding at 6 months, 16.3% exclusive breastfeeding at 6 months, and only 25.2% at 1 year.

The intestinal flora is important for the development of the immune system and normal intestinal structure and function. There appears to be many different ways in which breastmilk promotes the development of healthy gut flora while protecting infants against both short-term and long-term intestinal issues.  Breastfeeding promotes a higher number of Bifidobacteria. Bifidobacteria inhibits the growth of harmful bacteria and pathogens. The gut of a breastfed baby has a lower pH which promotes the growth of Bifidobacteria and also inhibits the growth of harmful bacteria. Formula fed infants have more harmful bacteria such as coliforms, enterococci and bacteroides. As formula fed infants age, they also will get more Bifidobacteria but the breastfed infants level remain many times higher.

Another way that breastfeeding helps promote gut health is through the development of biofilms that form a barrier against pathogens and infections. This is especially important for infants since the junctions of the gut mucosa are pretty open and allow pathogens to pass through easily. This is further augmented by sIgA that the mother produces and passes on through the breastmilk. These antibodies are specific to pathogens in the infant environment that have the potential to cause disease. This sIgA coats the gut and provides another layer of protection.
Breastmilk also contains human milk oligosaccharides, complex carbohydrates that are not in formula. These oligosaccharides help to promote healthy gut bacteria that initially protect the infant from infections. As the infant gets older, the oligosaccharides change and produce different fatty acids that help the immune system develop that provides protection against food allergies and asthma.
Research is just beginning to look at how the difference in bacteria, pH, biofilms and immunologic development from breastfeeding is affecting different intestinal disease. One study looked specifically at infants who had a high-risk for the development of Celiac Disease. Breastfeeding was shown to decrease the bacteria that were associated with the development of Celiac Disease. Breastfeeding increased the prevalence of B. uniformis bacteria that was more often seen in the low-risk group. A meta-analysis of research showed that breastfeeding was associated with a decreased risk of both Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis.            


Just one bottle won’t hurt—or will it? Marsha Walker, RN, IBCLC  

Monday, July 29, 2013

Diet Drugs: A Quick View

Diet Drugs: A Quick View

Having a healthy body weight can reduce the risk of medical conditions: diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, arthritis, and even some cancers. The benefits of having a healthy weight are apparent, but are people harming themselves to achieve it? Studies have revealed that one in five women have used diet drugs as part of their diet plan when trying to lose weight. There are several types of diet drugs that all claim to make you skinny fast. Many of these drugs have very serious side effects and show very little results. The Mayo Clinic did a very good job creating a list of some of the more popular drugs, their claim, effectiveness, and side effects associated with the drug (see link below). I have chosen two different drugs that claim to reduce body weight using different methods to investigate. Alli is a very popular diet drug that hopes to help people lose weight by decreasing absorption of dietary fat. Another diet drug is Chromium, which is used to decrease appetite and increase calories burning. Both weight loss drugs come with the recomendation that the individual follow a low fat diet and exercise plan, for best results. In fact, individuals taking Alli are recommended to eat meals with less than 15 grams of fat to reduce the risk of side effects. There about 14 grams of fat in a slice of Pizza Hut pizza. There are about 9 grams of fat in a hamburger at McDonalds (that's without cheese). How many hamburgers does it take for you to get full? Now that you have an idea of what these diet drugs do, lets see how they work:



Alli is an over the counter drug that has the same drug as a prescription drug called Orlistat (Xenical). Alli has been proven to be effective, but the outcome is more modest than its prescription friend, Xenical.

Alli works by reducing the amount of fat that is absorbed into the body.  As we know enzymes in the stomach breakdown fat into smaller particles to be absorbed. Alli attaches itself to the enzyme, stopping it from making contact with the fat and breaking it down, causing 25% less fat to be absorbed. Undigested fat is then passed out of the body.

Side effects of Alli include: Loose stool, oily stool, frequent or hard- to- control bowel movements;

There have been some reports of severe liver damage associated with Alli as well.


     Caption: "Please excuse me from being late I have explosive diarrhea. -K-"



Chromium is a mineral that is already found in the body, in trace amounts. Chromium helps insulin be more efficient in to body. Insulin is critical to the metabolism of glucose. Chromium is believed to assist glucose transition into muscle cells instead of fat cells. A chromium supplement has been produced in hopes that an increase of this mineral will speed up its effect on the body.

The mayo clinic found Chromium supplements are probably ineffective.

Side effects for Chromium supplements include:

Headache, insomnia, irritability, mood changes, and cognitive dysfunction.

**It is important to fully research any diet drug and contact your doctor before starting these types of medication**

Sunday, July 28, 2013

Charcot Marie Tooth Disease

For my blogging assignment I decided to add on to our topic of diseases.  I chose a different disease, one that has not yet been researched for our class.  Though this disease is new to the class it is not new to me.  The disease does not affect me, but one that I love very dearly and consider to be my best friend.  I have always known that the individual had the disease, but never knew the full extent of its effects.  This five minute YouTube video briefly explains the disease and the emotional toll that it can take on a family.
Video on effects of CMT
                Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease (CMT) is a disease that affects the peripheral neuropathy.  This more simply put means that the disease attacks the nerves throughout the body that control sensitivity and the electrical signals in the myelin sheath (for most forms of the disease).  The peripheral nerves throughout the body connect the brain and spine to extremities of the body.  These nerves alert the body of sensations such as touch, pain, heat, and sound.  Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease is due to chromosome 17, gene PMP22 (for CMT1), being damaged and the disease causes atrophy to the muscles in the feet, legs, and hands.  Unlike any other muscular dystrophy disease CMT affects the nerves and not the muscles directly.

  • ·         High Arches in feet
  • ·         Drop foot
  • ·         Hammer Toes
  • ·         Weak ankles
  • ·         Spasms
  • ·         Cramping
  • ·         Sensitivity in the feet and hands
  • ·         Clumsiness
  • ·         Overall weakness in the legs

After knowing a person with this disease and knowing that they have the disease it is easy to recognize that they have it.  When you know what to look for it is very easy to see the disease present throughout their body.

CMT is the most commonly inherited neuropathy and is present in an estimated 2.6 million people.  Therefore, there are a good amount of treatments to individuals with the disease.   The main treatment after the disease is diagnosed is for the individual to see the podiatrist for treatment for their ankles and feet.  After this treatment the patient, depending on severity, is directed to an occupational therapist for exercises to increase strength within the muscles and how to stretch them to avoid cramping and spasms.  It is highly recommended for those with the disease to keep up muscle use as much as they can.  The more that they use their muscles and maintain movement, the more their nerves and muscles are used keeping them from deteriorating. 
CMT is inherited in the autosomal dominant manner.  This means that in order to inherit the disease you only have to receive one allele to have the disease.  Since it is autosomal that means that it doesn’t matter if you are a male or a female you are at risk of inheriting the disease.  There is more than one type of CMT that can be inherited and each type varies in severity, the symptoms that are prevalent, and how the disease is caused.  In total there are approximately 18 different variations of the disease. 
Is there a cure?
Currently there is no cure CMT, though the CMT Association (CMTA) is an association that actively funds research for the cure for CMT.  The best way that the disease is treated/cured is through trips to the doctor, surgeries, and therapy.  I foresee the best cure to come will be stopping it from being inherited through manipulation of the allele that causes the disease from being passed down to the offspring.



Viruses can be found everywhere. However viruses are not living. Theses organisms are not living but as soon as they find a host they become active. Viruses are very interesting in that they only stick to things that they know. For instance plant viruses only affect plants and animal viruses only affect animals. Viruses are very small. They can be up to 10,000 times smaller than bacteria, or about one millionth of an inch. They are made up of a collection of genetic material encased in protein called capsid. Sometimes the capsid are covered by more proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates that might have spikes to help the viruses attach to host cells. This picture shows the different layers that are possible on a virus.

Viruses enter the body through the nose, mouth,  through your skin, or any opening in the body and they find a cell to be their host. So this why when somebody sneezes near you, you then get the virus, because the virus from their sneeze then goes in your nose or onto your skin. Once the virus gets inside the cell it makes a new virus and leaves that cell to go to contaminate other healthy cells in the body. When the virus leaves the cells it can leave in two ways. The first way is to break the host cell open, in this situation it destroys the host cell. The other way the virus can get out is to pinch out from the cell membrane, in this situation the host cell does not get destroyed. Either way the virus leaves it is still affecting the healthy cell and this is how viruses make you sick because they ruin the healthy cells. Doctors have made vaccines to prevent viruses because antibiotics do not get rid of viruses but some can stop them from spreading. So it is very hard to get rid of viruses. Sometimes they leave the body within a few weeks and other times they stay for years or even a lifetime. So since it is so hard to get rid of viruses the best thing to do is to prevent them. The first step in preventing viruses is good hygiene. The other way of prevention is vaccines. A vaccine is a small dose of the actual virus to get the body to build antibodies to fight against the specific germ. Some people also use home remedies to get rid of viruses or to prevent them. Most people are willing to do whatever it takes to get rid of viruses or to prevent them since they are so hard to get rid of and can become something very serious.

Gallbladder Disease...Cholecystectomy?????

In class we recently learned about the function of specific body parts. One important piece of the body we discussed was the liver. We learned that the liver is a power house that...
  1. Produces bile that carries away waste and breaks down fat
  2. It detoxes blood
  3. Regulates the blood glucose level with the process of glucose, glucagon, and glucagon
  4. Resists infection by cleaning the blood and filtering out some bacteria
  5. First to see nutrients
  6. Regulates blood clotting
While learning about the liver, we learned that it does not work alone. There is something called the gallbladder right under our good friend the liver that is supposed to be responsible for storing bile. The bile is made in the liver and travels to the gallbladder until it can be used to when breaking down fats. Knowing that the gallbladder and liver are connected in helping break down foods and fats while also storing bile, what happens when the gallbladder goes nuts?

I was interested in this topic while learning about the liver. Why? Well because I've had a laproscopic cholecystectomy...a big word for removing a gallbadder with small incision with a robot like instrument. I posted a question on Piazza asking how I can function with a lack of gallbladder if the bile and liver are so important?

Let me explain my situation pre-surgery. After having my son, I started to have gnarly pain shooting up my abdomen on the right side. When I inhaled it would feel like a daggar in my back along with the fact that I was puking my brains out and would often throw up this lovely acidy bile tasting yellow or brown crap forever. After going to the doctor, he ran a few test and concluded that I had gallstones. Which, in the words of my doctors looked like a little bag full of marbles. These nasty little stones are made up of hardened bile (composed of water, bile salts, protein, billirubin, fats, and cholestorel). They hardened because the bile has too much cholesterol.

It was removed laproscopically not openly. There are huge differences between the sugeries. One requires a big incision where the doctors literally "open" you up and the other is using a robotic like instrument. I recieved three microscopic incision and on slight incision right above my belly button. My gallbladder was sucked out of my body into a little bag through my belly button!!!!!!!!

After removing this troublesome organ, my body began to function normally minus the excessive vomitting, pain, and random acts of acid reflux. Although the gallbladder is not vital to every day function, it  make it easier for fats to be absorbed and digested. As a result, I have to watch the foods that I eat. Any food that has too much cholesterol will send me into a fit of vomitting and pain. This is something that I believe EVERY ONE wants to avoid in life. It is amazing how the body can adapt even with bits and pieces missing. The liver is an awesome organ. It compensates for the gallbladder who currently, in my body, does not exist.



I chose something a bit different for my blog post.  I was watching my strange addiction the other day and came across this obsessive disorder.  Trichtotillomania is a disorder in which a sufferer pulls their hair.  This can range from anywhere from your head, facial air, pubic hair, or armpit hair.  This can result in very noticeable bald patches.  The severity of the hair pulling varies.  For some just an awareness of the disorder can help in stopping the urge to pull.  For other it isn't so simple

Doctors are not yet sure what causes Trichtotillomania.  Many think that the disorder is relation to OCD.  Experts think that that compulsive behavior may be a result of an imbalance in the brain's chemistry.  Something is interfering with the neurotransmitters in the brain and as a result problems like compulsive and repetitive behaviors arise.  According to
 "While the underlying biology is not clearly understood at this time, we do know that people with trichotillomania generally have a neurologically based predisposition to pull their hair as a self-soothing mechanism. The pulling behavior serves as a coping mechanism for anxiety and other difficult emotions. It does not hurt and they are not trying to damage themselves. While the average age of onset is 11, trich can be found in children as young as one year old. Onset of trich can be trigged by simple sensory events, such as itchy eyelashes, or by stressful life events, and it can occur quite suddenly."

Trich can lead to both emotional and physical consequences.  For many their hair pulling creates a sense of shame. This can lead to potential social issues and well as severe depression.  Some people are so concerned with covering up their hair loss and and hair pulling that it can cause serious family issues

In addition to the psychological effect Trich can have it can also have a serious physical effect as well.  Up to 50% of the people who pull their hair also ingest it.  This can range from nibbling on the hair and follicles to swallowing the hair whole.  This can result in a bezoar or giant hair ball that if not removed surgically can be fatal.

Treatment for Trichtotillomania is a bit complicated because some treatments work differntly with different people.  Trich is a brain condition, so it isn't as simple as just "kicking a habit".  For many it is a chronic illness that takes years to overcome.  For many they do not even realize that they are pulling their hair.  However, there are some treatments that have been found effective in helping.  Many times treatment includes therapy, drugs, or a combination of both.  There are also a number of support groups that people can join.

If you would like to read more about Trich you can visit my sources!  Also I included a clip of the "My Strange Addiction Episode" I watched

Down Syndrome

I chose Down Syndrome (DS) because when we were working on our group projects earlier in the class I was very interested and I wanted to learn more about the disorder.
 DS is a genetic disorder that causes delays in physical and intellectual growth and development. It is diagnosed at birth or shortly thereafter. The symptoms are mainly physical features that include: 
  • Upward slant to the eyes
  • Decrease in muscle tone
  • Flattened facial profile
  • Depressed nasal bridge
  • Small nose and mouth
  • Abnormal shaped ears
  • Laxity around body joints
  • Differences in hands and feet

Genetics of Down Syndrome 

Babies with DS have 47 chromosomes instead of 46, which is the usual amount individuals have. There are three types of DS, however the most common form is non-disjunction. 
Non-disjunction DS happens when there is an excessive amount of chromosome 21 in some or all of the cells. This occurs when a faulty chromosome divides during the cell division in the egg cell or in the sperm cell production. So when the chromosomes combine as one, and the sperm and egg come together there are three chromosomes present instead of only two.  There has been extensive research on why this happens but there have not been any discoveries as to why, we only know the how.

Living with Down Syndrome 

A case of DS occurs one in every 691 live birth, the disorder has nothing to do with race, nationality, faith, or socioeconomically status. As individuals with DS grow into adults they have the ability to go to high school and have a job in the workplace, just because people with DS look differently does not mean they are not capable of basic abilities. All people with DS have a form of mental retardation, however it is impossible to judge the level at birth. A person with DS can maximize their fullest potential through education, high expectations, and a lot of encouragement. Even though people with DS are considered mentally retarded, they are just slower and it takes more time for these individuals to process things. They do have a lot of trouble with complex thought and reasoning.

Adults with Down Syndrome

Adults with DS usually have difficulties with their heart; nearly 40% of individuals have congenital heart defects. It is very important for parents or the caregiver to pay close attention in case of any cardiac that may occur. Besides having heart conditions, people with DS may develop the following:
  • Respiratory issues
  • Vision problems
  • Hearing problems
  • Prone to illness and infections around them
Making sure that individuals have someone to look over them and having proper care is vital to living a long healthy life. The average life expectancy is around 55 years old, however there are now individuals living well into their sixties and seventies.

I hope I have provided you with an adequate amount of information about Down Syndrome. I have enjoyed researching and learning more about this disorder. If you would like to learn more about DS the following are websites I used to find my information. Enjoy!

Thursday, July 25, 2013

Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple Sclerosis is a disease that hits close to home. I have two uncles that suffer from the disease, while each case is as horrid as the next; each one has a complete different experience. While my uncle whom has had been diagnosed with Multiple Sclerosis since he was in his mid twenties and know in his late sixties, his disease has taken the fast track and his legs are now almost unable to use at all. My other uncle who was diagnosed in his thirties, who is now in his forties only has the symptoms of eye blurriness and sometimes tingling in his arms or legs. With seeing Multiple Sclerosis in two different people, in two completely different forms it makes your mind wonder how Multiple Sclerosis affects each individual’s body.

Multiple Sclerosis or also known as MS is a chronological disease of the nervous system. When one gets Multiple Sclerosis, it attacks their central nervous system. This usually can affect their brain, spinal cord, and optic nerves. Multiple Sclerosis is thought to be caused by multiple environmental factors. There are doctors that will claim that Multiple Sclerosis can be autoimmune disease, while other doctors claim that the specific target of the immune system has not been identified. When an individual gets Multiple Sclerosis, the fatty substance around their nerve fibers gets damaged. The damaged fat will form a scar tissue, which leads to sclerosis, which gives it its name. Once all of the nerve fibers are damaged, it will destroy nerve impulses from the brain traveling to and from and to the spinal cord, which then leads to the symptoms. Along with each individual that gets the disease of Multiple Sclerosis, it will affect each individual in a different way. The rate of the disease, along with the symptoms that one receives will all vary.

Symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis can include:
  • Fatigue
  • Numbness
  • Walking, Standing, Balance problems
  • Bladder/Bowel Dysfunction
  • Vision Problems
  • Dizziness
  • Pain
  • Emotional Problems
  • Depression

There are not primary cures for Multiple Sclerosis. There are many treatments and strategies that are being looked at to help stop Multiple Sclerosis. They have hope that they will help stop or prevent the Multiple Sclerosis.


Wednesday, July 24, 2013

Celiac Sprue Disease

I have Celiac Disease and it controls almost every aspect of my life. I didnt know much about it at first only that I had to avoid food with "gluten" in it, which comes in many forms. There is much misunderstanding about it because it is actually a very serious disease, as it is an autoimmune disease, but generally it is thought to be an allergy. I am very informed about my condition now and after our modules including digestion, I have an even better understanding of why my body attacks itself when the gluten protein enters the digestive system. It is one of the most misdiagnosed diseases as it has such a huge range of symptoms it is often though to be, Irritable bowl syndrome or even Crohn's disease.

Celiac disease (CD), also known as celiac sprue or gluten-sensitive enteropathy, is a genetically linked autoimmune disorder that can affect both children and adults. In people with CD, eating certain types of grain-based products set off an immune response that causes damage to the small intestine. This, in turn, interferes with the small intestine’s ability to absorb nutrients found in food, leading to malnutrition and a variety of other complications. The offending amino acid sequences are collectively called “gluten” and are found in wheat, barley, rye, and to a lesser extent, oats* (WBRO). Related proteins are found in triticale, spelt, kamut. -Celiac Sprue Association 

The grain causes the body — in all humans, not just celiacs — to produce too much of the protein zonulin. This causes the junctions between cells in the small intestine to open too much. Things such as  toxins and gluten fragments get into the bloodstream, which is known as leaky gut syndrome. With celiac disease, the body sees gluten fragments as toxins that arent supposed to be there. The body launches an attack against these invaders, but the body also attacks itself, which gives Celiac Disease the label as an autoimmune disease. 

Celiac Disease is NOT:
  • simply a food allergy (IgE).  Wheat allergies are rare among adults.  In children wheat allergies affect .04-.05% of population.
  • an idiosyncratic reaction to food proteins (mediated by IgE).
  • typified by a rapid histamine-type reaction (such as bronchospasm, urticaria, etc.).
  • an intolerance, a non-immune system response to food.
When I accidently eat gluten I get a headache within ten minutes which leads to my face turning hot from blood rushing to it. Within an hour my vision blurs and sometimes dizziness accompanies the blurry vision. It will take about two months after an accidental eating for my intestines and digestive system to start functioning normal again.


     It has been known for centuries that river water could sometimes combat diseases such as leprosy. In addition, sea water, we now know, has the highest concentration of bacteriophages. In 1915, Frederick Twort discovered the bacteriophage, although he did not yet know what it was. In 1917, Félix d'Hérelle independently discovered the bacteriophage. He was the one who first understood that the virus was killing the bacterium, and he had the honor of coining the term “bacteriophage.” It was used in the U.S. in the 1940s, but was more common in countries like Georgia. Phage (short for bacteriophage) treatment has been used in Eastern Europe for decades. It was used in the U.S.S.R. in the military, but there were no official studies done, so it has not caught on as quickly in the U.S. Unfortunately, during the 1930s and 1940s in the U.S., bacteriophages were not always studied or used properly, and they fell out of favor. (Sometimes, patients were treated with a phage, but phages are very specific to the type of bacterium they kill, so sometimes the phage did no good.) Today, in the U.S., there is only one place where physicians use bacteriophages. In Georgia and Poland, the treatment is more common.


Structure of myovirus bacteriophage
     Phages are made of proteins which keep in the DNA or RNA. They can have anywhere from four to several hundred genes. The estimated number of bacteriophages is 10³º up to 10³². They are everywhere: on our skin, in out gut, and in our food, to name a few places. Bacteriophages kill bacteria by making a hole in them. Some phages do this by using a protein spike with an iron atom for a tip. This allows the phage to literally bore into the bacterium. Then, it releases its DNA into the bacterium so that the bacterium is forced to make more phages. Eventually, the bacterium bursts, releasing all the new phages.


     Mucus is made up of many mucins which, in turn, are made up of glycan sugars. It is to these sugars that the phages stick. In animals, phages are concentrated four times more densely in the mucus than elsewhere. Thus, the phages help to keep bacteria out in the first place.

On the left, bacteriophages attacking a bacterium (electron microscope).
On the right, computer generated model. 
(Credit: Adapted from J. Liu et al., Virology, 417 (1 September 2011), ( )

     Currently, scientists are re-engineering bacteriophages to produce proteins that help antibiotics perform better.  The protein shuts off the bacterium’s ability to repair its DNA.  Normally, antibiotics damage DNA, but the bacterium can repair it. The bacteriophage used in this study does not kill the bacterium, only lames it. Therefore, the bacterium is less likely to become resistant to the phage. Currently, phage treatment is being used for food and veterinary processes. LND102 is a medication made of six bacteriophages which kill a specific type of bacterium which leads to food poisoning. (This bacterium kills one quarter of those who get it). LND102 is used in food to decrease the amount of people who get poisoned. Another company is developing patches to put on cuts or infected wounds which contain bacteriophages. It is biodegradable, and, as it decomposes, it releases the phages into the cut, so they can kill bacteria. A U.K. company is developing a treatment for ear infections using bacteriophages. In the future, bacteriophages may be used for treating human skin diseases, livestock (so less antibiotics go into the animal and eventually into us), and water. Scientists are looking at the possibility of creating synthetic phages to combat different types of bacteria. It may be possible, with the development of synthetic phages, to change the type of phage given to the bacterium so resistance does not develop.
     Bacteriophages seem to be the solution to all our infectious disease problems. Although most phages are beneficial to us, some are not. The phage works by blowing up the bacterium. Some phages have toxins and specific genes which are harmful to us. When they bore into the bacterium, they, like all other phages, exchange the DNA in the bacterium. They also release the toxins which makes it more likely that both the bacterium and the phage will survive. When the right phage binds to the bacterium Streptococcus pyogens, the infected individual will contract scarlet fever. I think that there needs to be a lot more testing done before the phage is proclaimed to be so wonderful.  
     On the other hand, there are a lot of possibilities for the phage. It naturally harms and/or kills the bacterium (usually), and it mutates along with the bacterium. The main problem with antibiotics is that they are expensive, take a long time to develop, and quickly become ineffective against “super-bugs.” It appears that it is harder for bacteria to become resistant to phages, and, since they occur naturally, expenses and time may be saved in development. In the end, we will just have to wait and see. 

Bacteriophages bombarding bacteria (electron micrograph)